1) ILLEGAL ALLIGNMENT OR IMPROPER SERVER
If a team is stood in the wrong location at the time the serve commences or the wrong person serves the ball, the other team will be awarded the point.
A referee would indicate this by straightening their arm at a 45 degree angle towards the floor on the side that is at fault. The referee would then make small circle motions to indicate that a rotation area has occurred.
2) LINE VIOLATION
When serving in volleyball it is illegal to step on or over the baseline during the serve.
The official would point down at the offending line to indicate that a line violation has occurred.
3) ILLEGAL HIT
There are a lot of movements and motions that are considered illegal when playing the ball. The most common forms are things such as lifts or carries. A lift or carry is called if the ball comes to rest on a player for a prolonged period of time. A carry would be called if the ball visibly changes motion or direction whilst still in control of a player.
The referee would place their forearm out in front of them with their palm facing upwards. The referee would then move their palm upwards to signify an illegal hit has occurred.
4) DELAY OF SERVICE
Once the referee has blown the whistle to initiate the start of the rally, a player has 8 seconds to serve the ball. If for whatever reason the player takes longer than the allocated 8 seconds, the referee will award the point to the other team for the delay in service.
A referee will show this has occurred by raising their hand with a flat open hand before awarding the point to the opposition team.
5) OVER THE NET
You are not allowed to reach over the net to attack the ball, however, there are actually quite a few exceptions to this rule. You are allowed to reach over the net to play the ball if the opposition have you used their 3 allocated touches, hence why you are allowed to press a block over the net. You can also reach over and attack the ball if the ball is traveling on to your side and there is no possibility of the opposition playing the ball again.
A referee would indicate that a hand over (or over-the-net) has occured by placing their arm over the top of the net when stood on the podium or steps.
6) NET FOUL OR NET SERVE
If a net fault occurs the referee would take their hand on the side in which the net fault occurred and place their hand gently on the net to indicate the fault.
7) LEGAL BACK ROW ATTACK
If a player is back row they are not allowed to attack the ball from in front the 3m (10 foot) line, unless they jump from behind the line. If the attack is fine and legal then play would continue as planned until the point is won.
An official would indicate a legal back row attack by placing their arm at shoulder height and waving it directly down whilst keeping the arm straightened.
8) ILLEGAL ATTACK OF SERVE OR BACK ROW ATTACK
It is illegal for a back row player to attack the ball from on or in front of the 3m (10 Foot) line. When focusing on the ball it is very difficult to judge exactly where the dividing line is and as such an illegal back row attack may occur. It is also illegal to attack the ball from above the height of the net directly from a serve. This is to prevent people from jumping up and trying to block or spike the serve back.
The official would raise their forearm only keeping the upper arm horizontal at shoulder level.
9) ILLEGAL BLOCK/SCREENING
Screening or blocking the line of sight is actually illegal in volleyball. Players are allowed to group together and raise their arms as long as the receiving team has a clear line of sight to the server and or service flight path. It is allowed for players to group together and raise their arms, it is absolutely not allowed for players to move with the receiving players to ensure their sight remains obstructed, nor is it allowed for a player on the serving team to line up directly in front of the server to restrict the receiving players view.
If this was to happen the referee would indicate that an illegal screen has occurred by raising both hands upwards to head height forming and showing open palms towards the court.
10) BALL TOUCHED
If the ball lands out of bounds it is a point to the opposite team of the player who touched it last.
When a ball is hit by the attacking side it is quite common for the blockers or defenders to get a touch on the ball. If the ball was to land out after a touch from the blockers or defenders, the attacking team would be awarded the point.
An official would indicate that the ball has been touched and gone out by placing one hand up and out in front of them, with their other hand they would brush their fingers upwards.
11) FOUR HITS
Each team is allowed 3 hits/ contacts from when the ball crosses the net to the point in which it must be returned back over the net. The only exception to this rule is when a player blocks the ball, this does not count as a touch towards the team 3 touches, it also does not count as a touch for the individual player, this means a player can block the ball and then play it a second time without committing a fault.
Indicate this fault by simply holding up four fingers on one hand.
12) DOUBLE HIT
If a player receives the ball from the opposition, another player must touch the ball before the player that first received it can touch it again. This rule is the bain of every setter to have ever played the game. When hand setting it is very easy to double contact the ball. If the ball doesn’t enter or leave the hands at the exact same time an official will often call a double contact.
A referee would indicate that a double touch has occurred by simply showing 2 up on one hand.
13) BALL LANDS IN-BOUNDS
When the ball lands in a point is awarded to the team who was able to ground the ball on the oppositions side and between the lines.
An official would indicate that the ball landed in court by placing their arm at a 45 degree angle between the hip and shoulder and then pointing with their full arm and hand to the side in which the ball has landed in on.
14) OUT-OF-BOUNDS OR ANTENNA VIOLATION
The ball is considered out of bounds if it lands outside the court lines, contacts the net outside the antenna, the supporting or guide ropes of the net or the post and referee stand.
If the ball lands out of bounds or contacts the aerial the official would show this by bending both forearms upwards so the fingers are pointing towards the sky with their arms out in front of them.
15) BEGIN SERVE
The first referee would signal the start of the rally and indeed the start of the serve by blowing the whistle and waving their hand from the servers side to the receiving teams side.
16) AUTHORIZATION TO ENTER
Once the officials and both teams are ready to commence play the referee will blow the whistle and wave their hand into towards the centre of the court. This signifies to the players that they may enter the court.
A referee would indicate which team has won the point simply by placing the arm of the side that has won the point out horizontally to point in the direction of the winning side.
The referee would show a let or replay of the point by putting both thumbs up on either side of the net.
Substitutions are used for many reasons, whether it be to replace an injured player, change up the lineup or simply just to swap in a service specialist to try and get a few aces.
The referee will show that a substitution is taking place by placing their arms horizontally one over the other. They will then rotate their arms in a spin cycle motion to signify that a swap or rotation in the line up has occurred.
20) ILLEGAL SUBSTITUTION
If a player is substituted, if the coach wishes to substitute the previously swapped player back into the game, they can only do so if they sub them back in place of the player who previously replaced them. If the correct process is not followed, the player does not wait for the referee to confirm the substitution of a player replaces the wrong person an illegal substitution call would be shown.
An official would show this by placing one arm up vertically above their head and then rotating it around.
21) TEAM TIME-OUT:
If a player or team requests a time-out the officials will signify this by creating a T using their hands. This T will be displayed at head level to ensure all players can visibly see it. After the T is displayed the official will point to the side which has called the timeout so it can be noted
22) OFFICIALS TIME-OUT
This may be used would be if an official for whatever reason needed to be temporarily but immediately removed. For example a nosebleed or a sudden bowel movement. The other example would be if there is some deliberation between decisions or repeat offenses that need clarification amongst the officials.
The way in which officials show this is again by creating a T with their hands that will be displayed at head level. Once the T has been displayed the official turn their hands towards the head at shoulder level to indicate the timeout has been called by the officials and not either team.
23) DELAY OF GAME
An unnecessary delay is exactly what it says on the tin. This is a delay to recommencing play that is deemed excessive or unnecessarily long. These are often used when players are trying to slow down play either to disrupt the flow of the opponents or to try and regain energy after a long rally.
An official would show an unnecessary delay call by bringing the hands to the top of the waist, almost as if the official was going to rest their hands on their waist.
24) END OF GAME
The end of the game is indicated by the 1st referee taking both arms and crossing them across the chest to form an X shape with the arms.
25) CHANGE COURTS
This indicates one team must rotate round to the other side of the court in front of the referee whilst the other team rotates behind the referee.
26) SET POINT (HONORABLE MENTION)
When a team is on set point an official will clench a fist on the side of the team who has set point and hold it directly up in the air. This indicates to all players, officials and spectators that a team has set point.